SOME THOUGHTS ON AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF NEHRUJI-

There are 3 classics by Jawaharlal Nehru , which every genuine Indian patriot should possess and learn the messages by heart.

They are Glimpses of World History, Discovery of India and finally his autobiography ( Towards Freedom) written and published just before our Independence in 1947.

Glimpses is more about World History, an amazing and rare book , comparable in scope and sweep with multi-volume classic by American Socialist WILL DURANT. but more in tune with the Marxist -Leninist, world view .

Discovery of India , is the best book on Indian history to this day.

Nehruji was born in 1889 and was in England from …… to …… for his school and University education.

However, his Autobiography is the book that clearly shares his views and leanings as a great leader towards a very honest, frank and practical ideology just before the Partition. It is in that book , he states his ideological opposition to MOST of the basic principles of Gandhiji. The chapter on the Kisan movement in Uttar Pradesh (United Province in British India) is one among the best chapters in the book. He honestly admits that he did not have much contact with the revolutionaries in ‘India House’, of the years that he spent in England doing his Legal studies. – like VVS Iyer, VD Savarkar, MPT Acharya. He had great sympathy for the Irish freedom movement and even Sinn Fein. ..Many Irish intellectuals like George Bernard Shaw, Annie Beasant and Sister Nivedita were all great supporters of Indian Freedom movement. His subjects were more oriented towards Science. But as he admits , his years in England were more in tune with mild socialism . He was a Fabian in those years. Like Sydney and Beatrice Webb, in those years, he was not a Marxist. but an Utopian Socialist .

INDIRA GANDHI- A GREAT LEADER

INDIRA GANDHI, was  the  Tallest  Leader  of Indian Nation.

She  was  born  in October 1917 ( on  the  eve  of  the Great  Bolshevik Revolution)

Through  the  letters  of  her  Incomparable  father Jawaharlal Nehru ( published  as  Glimpses  of World History), she  was  trained  in so  many  fields  like  World History, Marxism-Leninism, Indian History,  the  crucial  years  of  British  Bourgeois  Revolution , American Revolution, French Revolution and  then  the Russian Revolution.

      She  was  not a mere  student  or  onlooker.  She  had  studied in Cambridge University,  could  speak  and  write  the French language  fluently,  and  studied  in Rabindranath Tagore’s  Santhi Nikethan.

       She  married  a family  friend  Feroze  Gandhi  ( a Parsi) against  her  father’s  wish  but  with  the  blessings  of  Mahathma Gandhi.  (  Gandhiji  was a Hindu Bania)  and Feroze Gandhi  was a Parsi ( Zorastrian  faith).

       Almost  immediately  after  their  marriage,  both of  them  took  part  in the  QUIT  INDIA movement  of  August 1942 and  were  imprisoned  in different  jails.   Indira was  just  23  then.  Feroze  Gandhi  was a long-time  family  friend  of  the  Nehru’s and  he  took  care  of  Kamala Nehru , mother  of Indira Gandhi,  who  was a TB patient.  Besides, he  was  a very  active  Congress  party  worker.

 Indeed,  which  member  of  the illustrious Motilal Nehru  family  was not  a Freedom  fighter? Every  one  of  them  had  suffered  imprisonment,  and  even lathi charge  and  injury ( including  Swaroop Rani- mother of  Jawaharlal Nehru and  wife  of Motilal Nehru).

      When  India  became  independent, Jawaharlal Nehru  was  the automatic  choice  for  the  responsibility  of  being  the Prime Minister  of India.  Jawahar  was  58  years  young  then. and  Gandhiji  had  clearly  and openly  chosen Jawahar  as  his  successor.  ( over  the  claims  of Vallabai Patel).

       It  may  not  be  known  by  many  youngsters  today  that  both Gandhiji  and  Jawaharlal  were  Internationalists  and  Socialists.  (  most  other  senior Congress  leaders  in those  years  had  neither  a world-outlook  nor any  perspective  about Economic  issues). Gandhiji  was  an Utopian Socialist. of Tolstoy’s  inspiration. ( Christian Anarchism).  Jawaharlal  was  initially  a Fabian Socialist  (  like  Sydney and Beatrice Webb,  Harold J.Laski) but  became a convinced Leninist  in 1917. 

      Jawaharlal Nehru visited  Soviet Union  under Stalin  in 1927. on the  eve  of  the Tenth  year  celebrations  of  the  Bolshevik Revolution.  He  took his  father Motilal Nehru  also  to Moscow.

      Jawaharlal  was  the  representative  of  Indian National  Congress.  He  visited Moscow  on his  return  from Brussels ( in Belgium)  Anti-Imperialist  Congress,  in which  leading Communists  of the Third International  like  Com.HO-CHI-MINH and  Chou-En-Lai  had  participated.

      So,  Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism  was  not at all  an alient  doctrine  for  the Nehru  family. Even Motilal Nehru  was  tremendously  impressed  by  the  great  progress  made  by  USSR  under Com.Stalin’s  far-sighted  and  determined  leadership.

      Jawaharlal  was  able  to  convince  almost all  the  real  intellectuals  of India  ( like Rabindranath Tagore)  about  the  great  achievements  of  Soviet Union  under Stalin.

      Mahathma Gandhi  was  not a frog  in the well.  He  had  already  waged  many  struggles  against  the  racists  in South Africa. right  from 1890.  He  was  no  stranger  to  India either  though  from 1890  to  1914,  he  was  active  in South Africa only  and  came  to  India  frequently  to  collect  funds  for  his  struggle  in South Africa,  He  was a BAR-AT-LAW  and  had met  Revolutionaries  like  V.V.S.Iyer,  Savarkar and  MPT Acharya  at India House  at London  in the  early  years  1907.

      He  came  to  lead  the  National Independence  movement  , as  invited  by  his  Guru, and a moderate  Gopala Krushna Gokale  in 1914,on  the  eve  of  First  World War .

      After  the  glorious  first  wave  of  Independence  movement, triggered  by  the partition of Bengal (  1907),  led by  the  intrepid  Revolutionaries  of  Anushilan Samithi- Juganthar Samithi and  great  leaders  like  Bala Gangadhara Tilak in Maharashtra,    Lala Lajapat Rai  in Punjab and  Aurbindo Ghosh  in Bengal,  there  was  terrible  repression  by  the  British  Colonialists and  Lokamanya Tilak  was  sentenced  to  six  years  imprisonment  in Mandalay  jail.   In Tamilnadu also,  Tilak’ s  staunch  faollowers  like  V.O.Chithamabaram Pillai  were  sentenced  to  double  life-imprisonment.

      In  the  face  of  such  brutal  suppression,  there  was  a lull  in the  Independence  movement.

It  was  then Gandhi  came  and assumed  the  leadership.  in Nagpur Special  Conference  of  Indian National Congress.in 1914.

      A  new  chapter  and  tactical  line  of Hindu-Muslim Unity,  Removal  of Untouchabilty and  emphasis  on Mass  movements  along  non-violent  methods  was  initialized  and  it  was  Gandhi  era  for  the  next  34  years-  till  he  was  shot  dead  by a Hindu  fanatic. in 1948. Gandhiji  was  79  years  old  then .

He  had  just  then  returned  from a single-man  crusade  against  Hindu-Muslim  communal  orgies  in the far-far  distant  Naokali  near Chittacong  in far-eastern  Bengal  now  in Bangladesh.  The  area  was  dominated  by  Muslims  and  the  victims  were  Hindus.  No   other liberal  , socialist, or  even communist  and  hindu-communal  organization  had  dared  to  enter  that  area  but it was Gandhiji  who  dared  and  was  able  to  save  the  hounour  and  lives  of  thousands  of  Hindu  women  and  children  from the  frenzied  mobs  of  Muslims.

        An  idiot  of a Hindu  fanatic  conveniently  ignored  or  was ignorant  of  this  great  service  of Mahathma  and  shot  him  dead  in prayer meeting  at  DELHI.

        Indira  Gandhi  was  then  just  31  years  old  and  she  never  had  any  private  life  as such  because  , her ancestral  home Anand Bhavan in Allahabad  was  continuously  a party  headquarters  and  meeting  place  of  revolutionaries  and  freedom  fighters  and great  scholars  and  great  souls  who  gave  their all  to  the cause  of Indian Independence.

( to  be  continued)

        

GANDHIJI  EARLY  YEARS (1869 TO 1914)  ( ENGLAND AND SOUTH AFRICA)

How  much  do  we  really  know  about  Gandhiji?

( the picture  above  shows Gandhi  as Law Student in London in 1887.

  He  was  18  years  old  then).

This  is a blog  post  to  give  chronological  details  about  the  life  of Gandhi as a student  of LAW  in London , his  return  to India  after the  legal  studies , his  first  visit  to South Africa  as a lawyer,  his  political  activism  in South Africa  and his  experiments  in Utopian Socialism  in Phoenix  farm  in South Africa  till  he  returned  to  India  in 1914 on  the  invitation of  Gopala Kerishna Gokhale  to  lead  the  movement  here .  When  he arrived  in India  ( 1914)  he  was already an international  celebrity.  ( he  was  45  years  old  then)  due  to  his  famous  and  successful  struggles  in South Africa.  As  Lokamanya  Tilak  was  in Mandalay  jail  , there  was a political  vacuum  of  leadership  in Indian  Independence  movement.  The  First  World  War  was  on  . Though a few  revolutionaries  like  Ras  Bihari Ghosh, Birendranath Chattopadhyaya , Shenbagaraman Pillai  ,  MPT  Acharya  had  tried  to  get  German  help  for  Arms  and  training, to  overthrow  the British  Colonialists  in India,  there  was  no  tactician like Gandhi to  find a way  out  and  lead  the  people’s  movement.

To  understand  Gandhiji fully,  let  us  have a brief  overview  of  his  years  in England  and South Africa.